More Doha trouble: Movement of natural persons


It is ironic how Mode 4 has backfired on the US and to some extent the EU. Mode 4 was once seen as a way to extend the dominance of Western firms in service arenas. Now that LDCs are progressing smartly in services provision themselves, Mode 4 has become a “non-trade” issue according to the West. If Mode 4 speaks so little about trade, then why was it included in the GATS in the first place?