What we find is that a one percentage point increase in occupation-specific import competition is associated with a 0.25 percentage point decline in real wages. While some occupations have experienced no increase in import competition (such as teachers), import competition in some occupations (such as shoe manufacturing) have increased by as much as 40 percentage points. The contrasting experiences of workers in textiles and apparel-related sectors compared to many service sector employees such as teachers helps to explain why some parts of the US economy have been deeply affected by globalisation while others have not.
We also examine the impact of increased offshoring by US multinational firms on wages of workers in the US. We find that when US companies increase their offshoring activities to low-income countries, this hurts US wages, but that more offshoring to high-income countries is associated with an increase in US wages.